Organisational behaviour is the field of study devoted to understanding the behaviour of individuals and groups in an organisation and applying this knowledge in the best possible manner. This study explains the relationship between people and organisation in terms of the individual, group, organisation and the entire system as a whole. The goal is to accomplish human, organisational and social objectives by building better relationships inside the organisation.
Organisational behaviour can be defined as the arrangement, working and performance of organisations, as well as the conduct of individuals and groups in the organisation. In short, assessment of people within an organisational set-up is termed as organisational behaviour. It includes examining, forecasting and managing human behaviour.
Organisational behaviour guides the management regarding how to achieve the organisational goals in an effective manner by giving relevant importance to human factors. According to Barnard, an organisation involves meaningful communication among people. This states that since the human factor is the most inseparable part of the organisation, hence, it should be given proper importance. Thus, organisational behaviour helps management in evaluating and shaping human behaviour in the best possible manner.
According to Fred Luthans, “Organisational behaviour is the understanding, predicting and controlling human behaviour at work”.
Models of Organisational Behaviour
1) Autocratic Model:
In the organisation following the autocratic model, the manager has the authority to order the employees to perform a specific task. Management considers itself as the supreme power to tell what is right for the organisation and thus the employees must obey their commands. This model results in excessive dependence of the employees on the management which leads to reduced employee morale, poor decision-making ability in the employees and high rate of turnover. Employees start expressing their hatred towards the company at home and in society but not on the premises. Another drawback of this model is the high human cost. Major features of the autocratic model are as follows:
- Only Management Decides Right or Wrong: Power of decision-making lies only with the management and if the employees do not follow their bosses they would be punished. This theory believes that only management knows what is right or wrong. Employees are assumed to be obedient and resistant to the needs and requirements of the organisation. This model is the same as McGregor’s Theory X.
- Power Based: As per the autocratic model the power lies only with the management. The ones in command have the right to issue orders and employees have to obey the command or else they will have to face the consequences.
- Formal by Nature: Organisations which follow the autocratic model have formal managerial orientation and have official authority. People are obligated to follow the instructions.
- Obedient Orientation of Employees: Under this model, the employee does not respect his manager, but he is dutiful to his boss.
- Employees are Dependent on Managers: The managers have complete power over their employees in such organisations. Thus, the psychological result is over-dependence of employees on their managers (superiors).
2) Custodial Model:
The focus of this model is on the satisfaction, security and welfare needs of the employees, thus leading the employees to depend on the organisation rather than the managers. The employees get frequent economic rewards and recognitions which make them happy but it does not lead to high motivation. The salient features of the custodial model are
- Resource-Based: For a successful custodial approach, the presence of economic resources is essential.
- Monetary Affiliations: The prime focus of the management is on payment of salaries and benefits to the employees.
- Focuses Employee Security: Employees security needs are given much importance in order to motivate them for better performance. An organisation can follow the custodial model only when it is in a good financial condition to make timely payment of salaries, pensions and other benefits to employees.
- Employee Dependence on the Organisation: The monitory benefits that the employees gain from this model make them dependent on the organisation rather than on the employer.
- Employee Focuses on Rewards and Benefits: In a custodial environment, the employee’s performance becomes dependent on the rewards and remunerations that they get. The employees feel well maintained and contented but not essentially motivated. As a result, certain employees do not perform well to the extent as they would perform under the autocratic approach.
3) Supportive Model:
This model focuses on getting work done through better leadership than power and money. It provides the employees with a chance to take responsibility and contribute towards the goals of the organisation and develop themselves. It differs from the custodial approach as it focuses on employee., growth and performance rather than on payment of employee’s benefit. The psychological result is that the employee develops a sense of belongingness towards the organisation as he participates in its growth and development.It believes in creating tat environment which helps both the employees and the organisation to grow mutually. Various features of the supportive model are as follows:
- Based on Leadership: This model believes in good leadership instead of emphasising on power and money to achieve results. Organisation gives an opportunity to the employees to develop and give their best and contribute to the growth of the organisation using effective leadership.
- Leader Supports Employees: Leaders have the quality of bringing out the best in their subordinates. They understand that no employee is lazy or resistant towards the organisational work but improper working conditions make them so. If an opportunity is given to them, then they can take responsibility, make an effort to contribute and improve their performance. The management’s focus in this model is to improve the performance of employees by providing them opportunities rather than offering benefits as done in custodial model.
- Increases Participation: A sense of belongingness towards the organisation develops in the employees because an opportunity to participate is provided to employees by management.
- Strongly Motivated Employee: Employees in the organisation with a supportive model are more directed towards work because their status and recognition needs are properly met. Thus, employees work with vigour and zeal.
4) Collegial Model:
Collegial refers to a group of people with a common goal. In this approach, the management works to develop better team and acts as a mutual contributor, not as a boss. The psychological result of this approach is that the employee feels a sense of self-discipline as he owns the responsibility of the work. This condition makes the employees feel their worth in the organisation. The employee is thus inspired towards performing better. Features of the collegial model are as follows:
- Based on Employee Cooperation: In the collegial model, the management builds a sense of partnership with the employee and employee feels his value and necessity in the organisation. Since the manager is also seen contributing towards the task, the employees begin to respect their job as well. Hence, the manager acts as an active participant rather than as an authority.
- Focuses Teamwork: The management acts as a trainer and emphasises on teamwork.
- Employees Feel Responsible: Employees when provided with trust react in a very responsible manner. For example, employees provide quality products, not because of fear of management or quality inspector but because they feel themselves to be-duty-bound. They feel responsible for the quality standard of their product which in turn will be beneficial to them and to the organisation also. This self-discipline that the collegial model inculcates in the employees results in quality work.
- Employees Feel Satisfied: This type of organisational setup acts as a motivator for the employee’s self-esteem. They feel a sense of worth and self-awareness by contributing to the success of the organisation. This leads to reasonable enhancement in the employee’s performance.